Stoicijnse Filosofie 1/…

In een aantal Engelstalige bijdrage heb ik het al gehad over de filosoof Epictetus, samen met Zeno de grondlegger van de Stoicijnse Filosofie. Hier wil ik nog enkele Nederlandstalige kanttekeningen bij hun werk maken.

Zeno

Zeno

Over de Griekse filosoof Zeno heb ik nog niet veel verteld. Bij deze dan aan de hand van Wikipedia:

Zeno van Citium (Cyprus, ca. 335 v.Chr.- Athene ca. 262 v.Chr.), was de stichter van het stoïcisme, de overheersende filosofische school van het late hellenisme en het Romeinse Rijk.

Citium op Cyprus telde een groot aantal inwoners van Fenicische afkomst, mogelijk was Zeno daar ook onder. Hij studeerde in Athene als leerling van de Cynicus Crates en de platonisten Xenocrates en Polemon. Hij werd ook geïnspireerd door Socrates, omdat deze ook aandacht had voor het concrete. Er is niet zo veel bekend over zijn leven, behalve dat hij met de Cynici een voorkeur voor schokkend gedrag deelde en geen gemakkelijk leermeester was. Zeno hield niet van grote groepen mensen, en gaf de voorkeur aan eenvoud boven rijkdom. Hij stichtte een school, maar kon zijn schulden niet betalen en werd door de Atheners als slaaf verkocht. Een vriend kocht hem vrij.

Zeno wilde een filosofie ontwikkelen, het Stoïcisme, voor de concrete, materiële en lichamelijke mens. Alles gebeurt volgens strikte natuurwetten, toeval bestaat niet.
Het Stoïcisme legde de nadruk op het in alle rust aanvaarden van wat het universum -dat een goddelijk wezen met een eigen wil en ziel is- in petto had.

Het woord stoa, waarvan stoicijns is afgeleid, betekent zuilengang en staat voor de stoa poikilè (beschilderde zuilengang). Dat was een zuilengang aan de noordkant van de Agora van Athene, alwaar Zeno zijn onderwijs gaf.

De stoïsche filosofie presenteert zichzelf als de aangewezen weg om de mens gelukkig te maken. Alles wat gebeurt in de wereld is volgens de Stoa van tevoren onverbiddelijk bepaald, maar de vrijheid en autonomie van de mens zit hem erin dat hij vrij is in zijn oordeel hierop. Dit oordeel is bepalend voor het menselijk geluk. Inzicht in de noodzakelijkheid van alles, inzicht dat dit zo goed is, enerzijds; anderzijds het inzicht dat hetgeen men gewoonlijk als persoonlijke rampen ziet, ons niet echt raakt, als we maar goed onderscheiden wat er echt aan de hand is.

Er zit evenwel ook een moreel aspect aan vast. Een stoïcijn wordt geacht ook zijn sociale plichten te vervullen. Dit wordt gezien als een natuurlijk bestanddeel van het leven in de menselijke gemeenschap. Want ook het leven in overeenstemming met de natuur wordt als doel geformuleerd door de Stoa.

Citaten van Zeno

De natuur heeft ons twee oren gegeven en slechts één tong opdat we meer zouden luisteren dan praten.

Door te zwijgen verneem ik de gebreken van anderen en verberg ik de mijne.

Wanneer men niet durft zeggen wat men meent, eindigt men met niet meer te menen wat men zegt.

Het bewogene beweegt niet op de plaats waar het is, noch op de plaats waar het niet is. De vliegende pijl rust.

Epictetus

Citaten van Epictetus

Ten eerste een aantal treffende en aan hem toegewezen quotes/citaten:

Geef me de moed te accepteren wat niet in mijn vermogen ligt, de kracht om alles te doen wat in mijn vermogen ligt en de wijsheid tussen die twee onderscheid te maken.

Er is slechts één weg naar geluk en dat is op te houden met je zorgen maken over dingen waar je geen invloed op hebt.

Mensen raken niet van streek door de gebeurtenissen, maar door de manier waarop ze tegen die gebeurtenissen aankijken.

Wil niet dat de dingen zich voordoen zoals je wilt, maar beperk je ertoe de dingen te willen zoals ze zich voordoen. Dat is het geheim van het geluk.

Het is het werk van een onopgevoed mens anderen de schuld te geven wanneer hij zelf de oorzaak van het onheil is; zichzelf verwijten maken is het werk van iemand wiens opvoeding een aanvang genomen heeft; wie noch zichzelf, noch een ander iets verwijt, diens opvoeding is voltooid.

Laat er vooral stilte zijn of zeg alleen het noodzakelijke en met weinig woorden.

Verschans u in tevredenheid want dat is een onneembare vesting.

Wat wil het zeggen, wanneer wij iets van ons noemen? Evenveel, als wanneer wij een bed in een herberg van ons noemen.

Stoic Philosophy 4/…

The dichotomy of control, that is the first principle in the entire Stoic Philosophy.
We don’t control many of the things we pursue in life—yet we become angry, sad, hurt, scared, or jealous when we don’t get them. In fact, those emotions—those reactions—are about the only thing that we do control.

The dichotomy of control

This is what Epitetus has to say about the dichotomy of control:

The chief task in life is simply this: to identify and separate matters so that I can say clearly to myself which are externals not under my control, and which have to do with the choices I actually control. Where then do I look for good and evil? Not to uncontrollable externals, but within myself to the choices that are my own…

And:

Some things are in our control, while others are not. We control our opinion, choice, desire, aversion, and, in a word, everything of our own doing. We don’t control our body, property, reputation, position, and, in a word, everything not of our own doing.
Even more, the things in our control are by nature free, unhindered, and unobstructed, while those not in our control are weak, slavish, can be hindered, and are not our own.

And also:

We control our reasoned choice and all acts that depend on that moral will. What’s not under our control are the body and any of its parts, our possessions, parents, siblings, children, or country— anything with which we might associate.



And now over to something completely different…

Gender and Sexuality in Stoic philosophy

In 2017 Malin Grahn-Wilder finished her study of gender and sexuality in ancient philosophies, and wrote the book “Gender and Sexuality in Stoic Philosophy“. This sounds like an anachronism, e.g. the concept of “sexuality” first arose in the nineteenth century. And the words “gender” nor “sexuality” have a specific equivalent in Greek or Latin terminology, and the Stoics (as well as other
Ancient thinkers) used a range of notions to refer to similar phenomena.

Malin Grahn-Wilder’s study (2017)

The practice of observing genital and other physical differences between the female and the male and having human beings called “women” and “men” obviously existed before the concept of “gender” was introduced, as did the experiencing of lust and desire, and the performing of acts such as caressing and making love.
Ancient thinkers, including the Stoics, observed not only the existence of these phenomena, but also the power they have in human life, affecting emotions, choices, self-control as well as the goals and conditions of life.
Moreover, Ancient thinkers, in general, gave considerable attention to gender and sexuality as philosophical problems, specifically with regard to how they influence people’s bodies, minds, lives, and happiness.
Interestingly, then, the dichotomy between the “passive” and “active” elements did not receive a gendered interpretation in Stoicism.

Sex and Gender

The Ancient Stoic view comprehends both “sex” and “gender” since they discuss gender as not only natural or biological (in the sense of what many contemporary thinkers understand as “sex”) but importantly as socially and culturally constructed (the modern sense of “gender”). The sources do not reveal how exactly the Stoics understood the relationship between these different aspects of gender, but their general tendency is to emphasize the inborn similarity between men and women, and claim that many gendered features are produced by the surrounding culture.

Male and Female

In Ancient embryological theories, “being a male” and “being a female” are defined sexually in terms of their different functions in procreation. On the other hand, Ancient sexual ethics deals with questions such as whether a good man should prefer the erotic love of boys or of women. Moreover, the very connection between gender and sexuality raises further interesting and more detailed questions, such as
whether sexual ethics are the same for men and women.

Stoic metaphysics considers gender to be insignificant (adiaphoron). On the level of rationality, which for the Stoics is the most essential human feature, there is no difference between men and women.
According to the Stoics, the reproductive capacity is one of the rational capacities of the human soul, which makes gender appear as comparable to the senses. Thus, one’s gender is as irrelevant for human rationality as, say, eye color is for the sight.

Stoic Philosophy 3/…

In the previous posts I looked at my favorite Stoic Philosophers, Epictetus and Marcus Aurelius, it is now time to get into the history of the Stoic Philosophy!

For those of us who live our lives in the real world, there is one branch of philosophy created just for us: Stoicism. It’s a philosophy designed to make us more resilient, happier, more virtuous and more wise–and as a result, better people, better parents and better professionals. 

Misinterpretation of Stoicism

To the average person, this vibrant, action-oriented, and paradigm-shifting way of living has become shorthand for “emotionlessness”. Given the fact that the mere mention of philosophy makes most nervous or bored, “Stoic philosophy” on the surface sounds like the last thing anyone would want to learn about, let alone urgently need in the course of daily life.
It would be hard to find a word that dealt a greater injustice at the hands of the English language than “Stoic”. In its rightful place, Stoicism is a tool in the pursuit of self-mastery, perseverance, and wisdom: something one uses to live a great life, rather than some esoteric field of academic inquiry. Certainly, many of history’s great minds not only understood Stoicism for what it truly is, they sought it out: George Washington, Walt Whitman, Frederick the Great, Eugène Delacroix, Adam Smith, Immanuel Kant, Thomas Jefferson, Matthew Arnold, Ambrose Bierce, Theodore Roosevelt, William Alexander Percy, Ralph Waldo Emerson. Each read, studied, quoted, or admired the Stoics. 

Stoicism

Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens (circa 334 – circa 262 BC) in the early 3rd century BC. It is a philosophy of personal ethics informed by its system of logic and its views on the natural world. According to its teachings, as social beings, the path to eudaimonia (happiness, or blessedness) is found in accepting the moment as it presents itself, by not allowing oneself to be controlled by the desire for pleasure or by the fear of pain, by using one’s mind to understand the world and to do one’s part in nature’s plan, and by working together and treating others fairly and justly.

Zeno, the first Stoic Philosopher

Origin

The name “Stoicism” derives from the Stoa Poikile or “painted porch“, a colonnade decorated with mythic and historical battle scenes, on the north side of the Agora in Athens. Erected in the 5th century BC—the ruins of it are visible still, some 2,500 years later—the painted porch is where Zeno and his disciples gathered for discussion. While his followers were originally called Zenonians, it is the ultimate credit to Zeno’s humility that the philosophical school he founded, unlike nearly every school and religion before or since, didn’t ultimately carry his name.

Zeno’s introduction to philosophy

According to one ancient source, Zeno was travelling on a business trip for his merchant father when the boat he was on was shipwrecked. According to the story, Zeno was washed up on the coast near Athens and as he made his way into the city he stopped to browse at a bookstall. There he started reading Xenophon’s Memorabilia of Socrates and was so impressed by the figure of Socrates that he asked the bookseller if men like him could still be found in Athens. At that moment the Cynic philosopher Crates walked by and the bookseller said ‘follow that man’. So began Zeno’s introduction to philosophy.

Zeno decided against becoming a Cynic himself and looked to other philosophers in
Athens for further instruction. Zeno next studied with Stilpo of Megara, perhaps for as long as ten years. Stilpo was, like Zeno, inclined towards Cynic ethics but, as a
member of the Megarian school, also had strong interests in logic, something that would later become an important part of Stoic philosophy.

The ancient biography of Stilpo records numerous arguments with Zeno’s previous teacher Crates, and one passage describes Crates trying forcibly to remove Zeno from Stilpo in an attempt to return him to the Cynics. We are also told that Zeno spent time in the Academy, listening to the lectures of both Xenocrates and Polemo (on whom more later). It has been suggested that Zeno’s own pantheistic conception of Nature was influenced by Polemo and in particular by his interpretation of Plato’s
Timaeus. It was out of this mix of influences—Cynic ethics, Megarian logic, and Platonic physics—that Zeno slowly forged his own distinctive philosophical position.

Teachings

The Stoics are especially known for teaching that “virtue is the only good” for human beings, and those external things—such as health, wealth, and pleasure—are not good or bad in themselves (adiaphora), but have value as “material for virtue to act upon.”
Alongside Aristotelian ethics, the Stoic tradition forms one of the major founding approaches to virtue ethics. The Stoics also held that certain destructive emotions resulted from errors of judgment, and they believed people should aim to maintain a will (called prohairesis) that is “in accordance with nature.
Because of this, the Stoics thought the best indication of an individual’s philosophy was not what a person said but how a person behaved. To live a good life, one had to understand the rules of the natural order since they thought everything was rooted in nature.

Stoicism teaches the development of self-control and fortitude as a means of overcoming destructive emotions; the philosophy holds that becoming a clear and unbiased thinker allows one to understand the universal reason (logos).
Stoicism’s primary aspect involves improving the individual’s ethical and moral well-being: “Virtue consists in a will that is in agreement with Nature“. This principle also applies to the realm of interpersonal relationships; “to be free from anger, envy, and jealousy” and to accept even slaves as “equals of other men, because all men alike are products of nature“.

Many Stoics—such as Seneca and Epictetus—emphasized that because “virtue is sufficient for happiness“, a sage (is someone who has attained wisdom and is a ‘good person‘) would be emotionally resilient to misfortune. This belief is similar to the meaning of the phrase “stoic calm“, though the phrase does not include the “radical ethical” Stoic views that only a sage can be considered truly free and that all moral corruptions are equally vicious.

Seneca (circa 4 BC – AD 65)

Seneca’s stoic consolations

Seneca was charged with adultery with Julia Livilla, sister of Emperor Caligula in 41 AD. He was shortly after exiled to Corsica where he wrote three “consolations”.

De Consolatione ad Marciam is a work by Seneca written around 40 AD. Seneca was most likely motivated to write this letter of consolation to Marcia in order to gain her favor; Marcia was the daughter of a prominent historian, Aulus Cremutius Cordus, and her family’s enormous wealth and influence most likely inspired Seneca to write this letter of consolation. Through the essay he sticks to philosophical abstractions concerning Stoic precepts of life and death. For a letter offering solace, he notably lacks empathy toward Marcia’s individual grief and loss.
Marcia actively mourned the death of her son Metilius for over three years. In De Consolatione ad Marciam, Seneca attempts to convince her that the fate of her son, while tragic, should not have been a surprise. She knew many other mothers who had lost their sons; why should she expect her own son to survive her?
The acknowledgement, even expectation, of the worst of all possible outcomes is a tenet of Seneca’s Stoic philosophy. While Seneca sympathised with Marcia, he reminded her that “we are born into a world of things which are all destined to die“, and that if she could accept that no one is guaranteed a just life (that is, one in which sons always outlive their mothers), she could finally end her mourning and live the rest of her life in peace.

In the De Consolatione ad Helviam Matrim (dated roughly 42/43 AD) Seneca consoles his mother: he does not feel grief, therefore she should not mourn his absence. He refers to his exile merely as a ‘change of place’ and reassures her his exile did not bring him feelings of disgrace. Seneca comments on his mother’s strong character as a virtue that will allow her to bear his absence.
Seneca’s seemingly positive outlook on his own exile follows his Stoic philosophy teachings that one should not be upset by uncontrollable events. This quote from De Consolatione ad Helviam, shows Seneca’s presentation of his life as tolerable, and even spiritually enjoyable.

I am joyous and cheerful, as if under the best of circumstances. And indeed, now they are the best, since my spirit, devoid of all other preoccupations, has room for its own activities, and either delights in easier studies or rises up eager for the truth, to the consideration of its own nature as well as that of the universe…

Seneca wrote De Consolatione ad Polybium approximately 43/44 AD. This Consolatio addresses Polybius, Emperor Claudius’ Literary Secretary, to console him on the death of his brother. The essay contains Seneca’s Stoic philosophy, with particular attention to the inescapable reality of death.
Although the essay is about a very personal matter, the essay itself doesn’t seem particularly empathetic to Polybius’ unique case, but rather a broader essay on grief and bereavement. In fact, the reader doesn’t ever find out the name of Polybius’ deceased brother. Seneca encourages Polybius to distract himself from grief with his busy work schedule. The tonal switch from consoling Polybius to flattery of Emperor Claudius occurs in chapter 12. Some say this tonal switch indicates the involvement of an other author; however, it is most widely accepted that this tonal switch was nothing more than Seneca’s desperate attempt to escape exile and return from Corsica.

the inhabited world… in huge conflagration it will burn and scorch and burn all mortal things… stars will clash with stars and all the fiery matter of the world… will blaze up in a common conflagration. Then the souls of the Blessed, who have partaken of immortality, when it will seem best for god to create the universe anew… will be changed again into our former elements. Happy, Marcia, is your son who knows these mysteries!

Seneca contrasted two models of maternal grieving: that of Octavia Minor, sister of Augustus, who, on losing her only son Marcellus in his twenties, “set no bounds to her tears and moans“; with that of Livia, wife of Augustus, who on losing her son Drususas soon as she had placed him in the tomb, along with her son she laid away her sorrow, and grieved no more than was respectful to Caesar or fair Tiberius, seeing that they were alive“.

Ethics

Ancient stoics are often misunderstood because the terms they used pertained to different concepts than today. The word “stoic” has since come to mean “unemotional” or indifferent to pain because Stoic ethics taught freedom from “passion” by following “reason“. The Stoics did not seek to extinguish emotions; rather, they sought to transform them by a resolute “askēsis” (is “exercise, training”; a lifestyle characterized by abstinence from sensual pleasures, that enables a person to develop clear judgment and inner calm). Logic, reflection, and focus were the methods of such self-discipline, temperance is split into self-control, discipline, and modesty.

Free from suffering

Borrowing from the Cynics, the foundation of Stoic ethics is that good lies in the state of the soul itself; in wisdom and self-control. Stoic ethics stressed the rule: “Follow where reason leads“. One must therefore strive to be free of the passions, bearing in mind that the ancient meaning of “passion” was “anguish” or “suffering“, that is, “passively” reacting to external events, which is somewhat different from the modern use of the word. A distinction was made between pathos (plural pathe) which is normally translated as passion, propathos or instinctive reaction (e.g., turning pale and trembling when confronted by physical danger) and eupathos, which is the mark of the Stoic sage (sophos). The eupatheia are feelings that result from the correct judgment in the same way that passions result from incorrect judgment.

The idea was to be free of suffering through apatheia (literally, “without passion“) or peace of mind, where peace of mind was understood in the ancient sense—being objective or having “clear judgment” and the maintenance of equanimity in the face of life’s highs and lows.

For the Stoics, reason meant using logic and understanding the processes of nature—the logos or universal reason, inherent in all things. According to reason and virtue, living according to reason and virtue is to live in harmony with the divine order of the universe, in recognition of the common reason and essential value of all people.

Virtues

The four cardinal virtues (aretai) of Stoic philosophy is a classification derived from the teachings of Plato (Republic IV. 426–435):

  • Courage
  • Temperance
  • Justice
  • Wisdom

They are the most essential values in Stoic philosophy. “If, at some point in your life,” Marcus Aurelius wrote, “you should come across anything better than justice, truth, self-control, courage—it must be an extraordinary thing indeed.” That was almost twenty centuries ago. We have discovered a lot of things since then—automobiles, the internet, cures for diseases that were previously a death sentence—but have we found anything better?

  • …than being brave
  • …than moderation and sobriety
  • …than doing what’s right
  • …than truth and understanding?

No, we have not. It’s unlikely we ever will. Everything we face in life is an opportunity to respond with these four traits:

Courage

About Courage Seneca said that he actually pitied people who have never experienced misfortune. “You have passed through life without an opponent,” he said, “No one can ever know what you are capable of, not even you.”

The world wants to know what category to put you in, which is why it will occasionally send difficult situations your way. Think of these not as inconveniences or even tragedies but as opportunities, as questions to answers. Am I brave? Am I going to face this problem or run away from it? Will I stand up or be rolled over?

Let your actions etch a response into the record—and let them remind you of why courage is the most important thing.

Temperance

Of course, life is not so simple as to say that courage is all the counts. While everyone would admit that courage is essential, we are also all well aware of people whose bravery turns to recklessness and becomes a fault when they begin to endanger themselves and others. 

This is where Aristotle comes in. Aristotle actually used courage as the main example in his famous metaphor of a “Golden Mean”. On one end of the spectrum, he said, there was cowardice—that’s a deficiency of courage. On the other, there was recklessness—too much courage. What was called for, what we required then, was a golden mean. The right amount.

That’s what Temperance or moderation is about: doing nothing in excess. Doing the right thing in the right amount in the right way. Because “We are what we repeatedly do,” Aristotle also said, “therefore excellence is not an act, but a habit”.

As Epictetus would later say, “capability is confirmed and grows in its corresponding actions, walking by walking, and running by running… therefore, if you want to do something, make a habit of it.” So if we want to be happy, if we want to be successful, if we want to be great, we have to develop the capability, we have to develop the day-to-day habits that allow this to ensue.

This is great news. Because it means that impressive results or enormous changes are possible without herculean effort or magic formulas. Small adjustments, good systems, the right processes—that’s what it takes.

Justice

Being brave. Finding the right balance. These are core Stoic virtues, but in their seriousness, they pale in comparison to what the Stoics worshipped most highly: Doing the right thing. 

There is no Stoic virtue more important than justice, because it influences all the others. Marcus Aurelius himself said that justice is “the source of all the other virtues.” Stoics throughout history have pushed and advocated for justice, oftentimes at great personal risk and with great courage, in order to do great things and defend the people and ideas that they loved. 

  • Cato gave his life trying to restore the Roman Republic.
  • And Thrasea and Agrippinus gave theirs resisting the tyranny of Nero.
  • George Washington and Thomas Jefferson formed a new nation—one which would seek, however imperfectly, to fight for democracy and justice—largely inspired by the philosophy of Cato and those other Stoics.
  • Thomas Wentworth Higginson, a translator of Epictetus, led a black regiment of troops in the US Civil War.
  • Beatrice Webb, who helped to found the London School of Economics and who first conceptualized the idea of collective bargaining, regularly re-read Marcus Aurelius.

Countless other activists and politicians have turned to Stoicism to gird them against the difficulty of fighting for ideals that mattered, to guide them towards what was right in a world of so much wrong. A Stoic must deeply believe that an individual can make a difference. Successful activism and political maneuvering require understanding and strategy, as well as realism… and hope. It requires wisdom, acceptance and also a refusal to accept the statue quo. 

It was James Baldwin who most brilliantly captured this tension in Notes of a Native Son:

It began to seem that one would have to hold in mind forever two ideas which seemed to be in opposition. The first idea was acceptance, the acceptance, totally without rancor, of life as it is, and men as they are: in light of this idea it goes without saying that injustice is commonplace. But this did not mean that one could be complacent, for the second idea was of equal power: that one must never, in one’s own life, accept these injustices as commonplace but one must fight them with all one’s strength.

A Stoic sees the world clearly…but also sees clearly what the world can be. And then they are brave, and strategic enough to help bring it into reality. 

Excercise

Philosophy for a Stoic is not just a set of beliefs or ethical claims; it is a way of life involving constant practice and training (or “askēsis“). Stoic philosophical and spiritual practices included logic, Socratic dialogue and self-dialogue, contemplation of death, mortality salience, training attention to remain in the present moment (similar to mindfulness and some forms of Buddhist meditation), and daily reflection on everyday problems and possible solutions e.g. with journaling. Philosophy for a Stoic is an active process of constant practice and self-reminder.

In his Meditations, Marcus Aurelius defines several such practices. For example, in Book II.I:

Say to yourself in the early morning: I shall meet today ungrateful, violent, treacherous, envious, uncharitable men. All of the ignorance of real good and ill…I can neither be harmed by any of them, for no man will involve me in wrong, nor can I be angry with my kinsman or hate him; for we have come into the world to work together…

Stoics were also known for consolatory orations, which were part of the consolatio literary tradition. Three such consolations by Seneca have survived.

Stoics commonly employ ‘The View from Above’, reflecting on society and otherness in guided visualization, aiming to gain a “bigger picture“, to see ourselves in context relevant to others, to see others in the context of the world, to see ourselves in the context of the world to help determine our role and the importance of happenings.

Marcus Aurelius, Meditations, in Book 7.48 writes:

A fine reflection from Plato. One who would converse about human beings should look on all things earthly as though from some point far above, upon herds, armies, and agriculture, marriages and divorces, births and deaths, the clamour of law courts, deserted wastes, alien peoples of every kind, festivals, lamentations, and markets, this intermixture of everything and ordered combination of opposites.”

Rise, decline and revival

Stoicism flourished throughout the Roman and Greek world until the 3rd century AD, and among its adherents was Emperor Marcus Aurelius. It experienced a decline after Christianity became the state religion in the 4th century AD. Since then it has seen revivals, notably in the Renaissance (Neostoicism) and in the contemporary era (modern Stoicism).

Stoic Philosophy 1/…

Stoic philosophy is at the foundation of the best modern self-help approaches, such as rational emotive therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, and positive psychology.

In my library are two ancient books that, for me, are the most helpful self-help books of all: The Manual of Epictetus (55-135) and The Meditations of Marcus Aurelius (121-180).

Epictetus and Marcus Aurelius

Epictetus and Marcus Aurelius are pillars of the Stoic school of philosophy.
Stoicism doesn’t mean caring less and repressing emotion or shunning pleasure, but focusing on what is in our power and letting go of everything we can’t control. This is what Marcus said, based on the teachings of Epictetus:

To change your experience, change your opinion. If you’re upset by something outside you, it’s not the thing itself that upsets you, but your opinion of it. And it’s in your power to wipe away that opinion immediately.

Sounds like advice from Albert Ellis, who founded Rational Emotive (Behavior) Therapy (RE(B)T) in 1957. To be honest: Ellis credited Epictetus with providing a foundation for his system of psychotherapy.

The journal entries of Marcus Aurelius are just that: notes to himself. In one of the first entries in Book I he thanks his teacher Rusticus for introducing him to the work of Epictetus. So this philosopher is the first to get our attention. In the next message we will talk about Marcus Aurelius.

Epictetus

Epictetus was a Greek Stoic philosopher. He was born at Hierapolis, Phrygia (present day Pamukkale, Turkey) and spent his youth as a slave in Rome to Epaphroditos, a wealthy freedman and secretary to Nero. Early in life, Epictetus acquired a passion for philosophy and, with the permission of his wealthy owner, he studied Stoic philosophy under Musonius Rufus. Becoming more educated in this way raised his social status. At some point, he became crippled. Origen wrote that this was because his leg had been deliberately broken by his owner. Simplicius, in contrast, wrote that he had simply been lame from childhood. “Lameness is an impediment to the leg,” he would later say, “but not to the will.”

Epictetus obtained his freedom sometime after the death of Nero in AD 68, and he began to teach philosophy in Rome. Around AD 89, when Emperor Domitian banished all philosophers from the city, Epictetus moved to Nicopolis in Epirus, Greece, where he founded a school of philosophy.

Epictetus lived alone, with few possessions. But in his old age, he adopted a friend’s child who otherwise would have been left to die and raised him with the aid of a woman. He died sometime around AD 135.

Arrian

His most famous pupil, Arrian, studied under him as a young man (around AD 108) and claimed to have written his famous Discourses based on the notes he took on Epictetus’s lectures. He wrote 8 books in this matter, but only 4 survived.
Arrian also compiled a popular digest, entitled the Enchiridion, or Manual. In a preface to the Discourses that is addressed to Lucius Gellius, Arrian states that “whatever I heard him (Epictetus) say, I used to write down, word for word, as best I could, endeavouring to preserve it as a memorial, for my own future use, of his way of thinking and the frankness of his speech“.
Arrian argued that his Discourses should be considered comparable to the Socratic literature. Arrian described Epictetus as a powerful speaker who could “induce his listener to feel just what Epictetus wanted him to feel.” Many eminent figures sought conversations with him. Emperor Hadrian was friendly with him, and may have heard him speak at his school in Nicopolis.

Epictetus’ Philosophy

Epictetus taught that philosophy is a way of life and not just a theoretical discipline. To Epictetus, all external events are beyond our control; we should accept whatever happens calmly and dispassionately. However, individuals are responsible for their own actions, which they can examine and control through rigorous self-discipline.
Both the Discourses and the Enchiridion begin by distinguishing between those things in our power (prohairetic things) and those things not in our power (aprohairetic things).

We have no power over external things, and the good that ought to be the object of our earnest pursuit, is to be found only within ourselves.

This is similar to Shakespeare’s “There is nothing either good or bad, but thinking makes it so.” (Hamlet: Act 2, Scene 2), and John Milton’s “The mind is its own place, and in itself can make a heaven of hell, a hell of heaven.”

It has been justly said that, though Epictetus is named a Stoic, and that his principles are Stoical, he is not purely a Stoic. He learned from other teachers as well as the Stoic. He quotes the teaching and example of Socrates (470-390 voor Christus) continually, and the example of Diogenes the Cynic (404-323 voor Christus), both of whom he mentions more frequently than Zeno (490-430 voor Christus), the founder of the Stoic philosophy. He also valued Plato (427-347 voor Christus), who accepted from Socrates many of his principles, and developed and expanded them.

Plato and Socrates

Epictetus strongly opposes the doctrines of Epicurus, of the newer Academics, and of Pyrrho, the great leader of the Sceptical School.